Rationale and Relevance – The Challenges of Adult Learning

Does the teaching of adult learners require different assumptions and techniques than the teaching of children and pre-adult adolescents?For centuries, the question was rarely considered, as what could be called the “pedagogical” model of education was universally applied. Pedagogy is what we now call teacher-centered learning. The teacher is the expert who by virtue of his or her superior knowledge and experience over the student determines not only the content of what is to be taught, but how it is taught as well. Teaching methodology is largely a one-way transfer of learning from expert to novice, most often in the form of lectures and reading assignments.In the 1960’s American educator, Malcolm Knowles popularized a new approach called andragogy, which he described in one of his later books, The Modern Practice of Adult Education, as the art and science of teaching adults. Since then, the term is used to describe learner-centered education at all ages.The passage from childhood to adulthood is marked by increasing degrees of independence and responsibility for decision making about one’s own life. Knowles believed adults would learn better were they more involved in the decisions about their own learning.Knowles based his model on six assumptions:
Adults have a “need to know.” They must have a rationale for why they need to learn a body of content.
Adults come to the educational setting with more relevant experience.
Adults have a need to be involved in the decisions about their own learning.
Adults learn best when they see a direct relevance of the learning to their own lives.
Adults are better at learning content that is oriented towards solving problems.
Adults respond better to intrinsic motivation rather than extrinsic motivation.
Today there is a growing belief that many of these assumptions apply equally to the education of children. If you search the Internet for information on andragogy and the whole idea of adult education, you will find some who believe Knowles himself later came to believe the same principles should be applied to childhood education in certain situations.For professionals involved in the education of adults in post-graduate and industrial settings, one could argue the most challenging of these principles are rationale and relevance.RationaleThere are really three issues here: what is to be learned; how it will be learned; and why it is important. Spelling out the what and the how is not that difficult, but the why presents the challenge. An adult who has decided to pursue a Masters in Business Administration with a major in International Business finds himself or herself in an accounting class. Why?The value in understanding this principle of adult education is recognizing the need to address the question, rather than assuming the student has no need to know. Under a pedagogical model, there may be valid reasons for learning something, but the instructor sees no reason to share them with the students.RelevanceIf adults have an immediate need to know something, they are more motivated to learn it. If you are teaching a class on appraisal techniques to a group of managers who are about to begin the process of appraising employees for the first time, they will be more motivated to learn. There is no denying the power of the principle of immediacy. However, being aware of the principle of relevance enables an instructor to focus on future applications rather than strictly immediate needs.

The Many Facets of a Halloween Adult Costume

If you were to ask what is meant by a Halloween adult costumes, most would respond it is a costume that comes in a size appropriate for an adult. Well, on a baseline level, that is accurate assessment. But, it is not a completely accurate assessment. There is a lot more to an adult Halloween costume than just providing a proper fit. The look, the material and the originality of the design often play a huge role in making the costume special.During the weeks prior to Halloween, consumers will notice many retail store shelves filled with children’s costumes and novelties. While many of these little get ups are fine for the young ones, simply making them a larger size would not necessarily make a decent adult costume. A costume designed for a nine year old simply does not translate well for an adult because Halloween adult costumes require more sophistication. For example, a child’s witch costume is little more than a few low cost accessories slapped together. A hat, wig, cape, and, perhaps, a funny nose is really all that is required for a children’s version of the costume. For adults, however, such a simplistic design really would not cut it.Adults are not wearing their costume to go trick or treating. They are wearing the costume to attend a party or, possibly, to appear on stage wearing it. Either way, the costume has to look convincing and properly designed. After all, you wouldn’t attend a formal party in wrinkled casual wear. So, why would you try and make a good impression on others wearing a very cheap Halloween adult costume? You can’t and you shouldn’t, particularly when there are so many excellent adult Halloween costumes available. Again, Halloween adult costumes will not be made out of cheap material. Often, the actual material used in the making of the costume will possess an almost elegant quality. Additionally, the costume will be built to withstand wear and tear. This will be important if you are wearing the costume on stage or for theatrical use. Costumes that would be easily torn would be a major negative in such a scenario. Additionally, Halloween adult costumes will be produced with fine attention to detail. A wig and a mask will not cut it when one needs a quality costume. This is why all costumes of high quality pay particular attention to detail. Masks, in particular, take on a unique aesthetic dimension when attention to detail is present.When you look at the facial features of a Dracula mask, a werewolf mask, a mad scientist mask, etc you will notice a great deal of work goes into making the mask come alive. This brings out the personality of the creature in the form of pathos, fear, horror, etc. This truly makes the character come alive. Once again, when you dress up for Halloween you want to look impressive. A properly made and expertly designed adult Halloween costume can most definitely deliver in this regard. As one can see, there is much more to Halloween adult costumes than merely expanding the size. When properly crafted, an adult Halloween costume literally rises to the level of a work of art. Now, doesn’t that sound like an exciting costume to wear?

Adult Personals Online – How to Keep Safe and Still Have Fun

Some people are curious about the adult things in life and that may lead them to an adult personals online website. For many, these websites provide a unique experience that would be difficult to procure in other ways.This has led to the enormous popularity of these adult personals online websites spiking to levels none had imagined. However, there are those that have concerns about the safety of these sites. Some may wonder if the members on the site can pose some problems for them. This leads to safety concerns.The best way to ensure your safety and comfort levels is to sign on with a paid adult dating site. Why a paid site and not a free one?Because a reputable paid adult personals site takes great care to ensure utmost safety and privacy of its members. Of course, you still have to do your due diligence to safeguard your information and your safety in and out of the site.There are many reasons why free sites are a terrible idea to join. The fact that anyone can sign up to them anonymously adds to the problems associated with signing up to such sites. So, those looking for adult personals online are advised to stay away from free sites when safety is a serious concern. Free sites just are not where it is at!When you sign up for a paid site, you will need to provide a credit card so that the service can bill you. Clearly, you cannot hide your identity with a credit card since you have to provide your full name and billing address.This makes using a fake name and false identity virtually the more difficult. As such, people remain on their best behavior on the site since they cannot hide who they truly are. This greatly aids in maintaining safety and remains a benefit that free sites cannot provide.Also, paid sites are generally much better in monitoring those that create profiles on the site. They can also monitor activity. If the person does not act in a manner that is appropriate, the profile can be deleted. This adds to making sure people are on their best behavior and dissuades unsavory individuals from venturing into adult personals online.When it comes to meeting people or making any sort of contact with them, follow your gut instincts and feelings. If something does not seem right, do yourself a favor: avoid the situation. It may be a cliche to some to think it is better to be safe than sorry but it is a cliche that can maintain your health, safety, and welfare!Maintaining your safety with adult personals online simply involves sticking with reputable sites and trusting your own instincts. This will reduce the potential for a dangerous situation occurring while also allowing you to enjoy your leisure time pursuits.